A SWOT: Thematic Analysis of Pedagogical Practices at Inclusive School of Pakistan

Resource Type

International Journal of Educational Research Open

Volume 6, June 2024




  • Mahwish Kamran

    (Department of Education and Social Sciences, Iqra University, Karachi 75500, Pakistan)

  • Nazia Bano

    (Independent Researcher, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada)

  • Sohni Siddiqui

    (Department of Educational Psychology, Technische Universität Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany)



    In Pakistan, where the subject of special/inclusive education is still taboo, there is a need to promote inclusivity in education. However, the journey begins at the grassroots level by accommodating children with disabilities in a mainstream setup at the primary level. This paper presents the findings of an exploratory research study conducted in an inclusive private primary school in Karachi, Pakistan. This case study research draws on the pedagogical practices of classroom teachers in a private primary inclusive school in Karachi where children with disabilities study alongside their peers who do not have special educational needs or disabilities. The research study aimed to explore the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threat factors that could optimize the teaching and learning process of children with special educational needs (CWSN) or children with disabilities (CWD) in the context of an inclusive school located in Karachi, Pakistan. Through an analysis of 16 semi-structured interviews and multiple classroom and field observations, teachers’ understandings of their school’s institutional values and their pedagogical practices to accommodate children with disabilities and inclusion were explored. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a SWOT–thematic qualitative method. The results of the SWOT analysis indicate how an inclusive school caters to the strengths of CWD and provides them with opportunities to sustain themselves in an educational setup.

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    Key Area
    inclusive schools

    South Asia

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