Study: Child Functioning Module—Teacher Version (CFM—TV) Validity Study

Case Study

Period of Implementation

February 2022 - April 2023


USAID Inclusive Development Hub Disability Program funds through the All Children Reading: A Grand Challenge for Development, a partnership between USAID, World Vision, and the Australian Government


  • School-to-School International
  • Progress, Inc.

Study Country


Study Overview

Data on early grade learners with disabilities is not widely available. However, a new tool, called the Child Functioning Module- Teacher Version (CFM-TV) may prove useful in obtaining such data. The CFM-TV Validity Study in Nepal will explore how the CFM-TV performs when implemented by teachers. This study will contribute to global evidence on the usefulness of the CFM-TV for providing data on learners with disabilities in school settings.

Research Questions

  • What are teachers’ interpretations of the CFM-TV questions?
  • To what extent are teacher ratings on the CFM-TV influenced by teacher and school characteristics?
  • How consistent are learners’ functional difficulty/disability classifications as identified by the CFM-TV, CFM and medical screeners?

Methods and Analysis

This mixed methods study will obtain validity data through cognitive interviews, surveys, key informant interviews, and review of existing data. Analysis will focus on understanding the influence of teachers', caregivers’ and medical personnel's interpretation of tools on results.

Research Goals

  • Evaluate if/when CFM-TV results are adequate for reporting reading outcomes disaggregated by disability status at an aggregated level
  • Determine circumstances when CFM-TV can provide adequate information on learners’ functional difficulties
  • Advance body of evidence related to identifying and disaggregating EGR outcomes for children with disabilities in schools in Nepal

Study Timeline

Feb-Jul 2022 IRB approval; local research partner selection; study site selection; data collection plan development; implementing partner engagement; tool development

Jul-Aug 2022 Pilot data collection

Nov 2022 Data collection (48 schools)

Mar-Apr 2023 Final study report; dissemination end events

Download the Study

For more information on this study, please contact Leah Maxson ( and Rebecca Pagel (

Key Area
children with disabilites

South Asia

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